Aquaculture necessitates the availability of clean water, and the release of clean water into the environment is critical for the protection of aquatic ecosystems and the reuse of water sources.
Aquaculture water treatment
Waste products are produced during the metabolic process of turning fish feed into fish flesh. Suspended solids (SS) and dissolved nutrients make up this category. On a dry matter basis, suspended particles make up about a quarter of the feed used.
The concentration of suspended solids (SS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the aquaculture facility’s output is reduced by a water treatment plant. A wastewater treatment technique removes or reduces contaminants from the wastewater produced by a certain fish processing operation.
By assisting businesses in adopting novel treatment and water technologies methodologies for water treatment makeup, waste effluent treatment and recirculating side-stream treatment and reuse, water treatment can boost productivity while lowering risk.
The requirements for removing suspended solids from flow-through fish farms differ from those for sewage, pig farm effluent, or unclean water from a vegetable processing plant: pollutant concentrations in fish farm effluent are relatively low, while flow volumes are quite high. To keep costs down, these huge water flow volumes necessitate careful system selection.
Origin of suspended solids
In a fish farm, suspended solids and dissolved nutrients come from:
- Uneaten feed
- Faeces produced by fish metabolism
- Solids transported into the farm by the flow of water from an external source
- Micro-algae and bacteria growth
Factors impacting suspended solids production
A variety of factors influence the production of suspended particles in a fish farm, including:
- Feed quality
- Feeding rate
- Feeding method
- Water exchange rate – Tank hydrology
- Fish stocking density
- Dissolved oxygen level
- Farm management efficiency and staff skills
Applications of water treatment
- Shrimp farming
- Seafood Canning / Shrimp Canning Plant
- Seafood Processing Plant
- Shellfish Farming
- Pond farming
- Closed Recirculating Aquaculture
- Flow-through Aquaculture
- Small Footprint
- Reclaimed water is odourless and colourless.
- Completely automated
- Sludge production is kept to a bare minimum.
- Operation with no noise
- Components that are long-lasting and non-corrosive
- Phosphorus, COD, Nitrogen, BOD, disinfection, and pollutant removal efficiency are all high.
- Environmental regulations are met.
Why is water quality important in aquaculture?
One of the most significant characteristics of aquaculture is dissolved oxygen (DO). Because oxygen has a direct impact on feed intake, disease resistance, and metabolism, maintaining good DO levels in the water is critical for optimum production.
What factors can have an impact on aquaculture water quality?
Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, ammonia, hardness, and nitrites are all regularly measured water quality metrics in the aquaculture business. carbon dioxide, chlorides, and salinity may also be monitored, depending on the culture system.
What are the parameters that determine the quality of water?
Chemical, physical, and biological aspects of water can all be evaluated or monitored depending on the desired water parameters of concern. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, ORP, and turbidity are all parameters that are commonly sampled or monitored for water quality.
In aquaculture systems, a variety of chemical, physical, as well as biological approaches employed in conventional wastewater treatment has been utilised. Sedimentation, sand, or mechanical filtering are used to remove solids. For the oxidation of organic matter, nitrification, and denitrification, biological processes like trickling filters, submerged biofilters, fluidized bed reactors and rotating biological contactors are used. In Europe, rotating micro screens with pore sizes of 60-200 m are extensively employed in land-based fish farms. These technologies are effective at removing phosphorus, but they are costly in terms of capital investment, energy consumption, and time.
However, only a little amount of research has been done on aquaculture effluent. Wetland systems have been shown to remove considerable amounts of suspended particles, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements, and microbes from wastewater, according to studies. Depending on whether the intense culture system is a flow-through of single-pass, reuse of water with a small exchange, or a recirculating system, the goals of waste treatment and solids management varies.
Solids, organic debris, ammonia, and nitrite must all be removed before recirculating aquaculture systems may be developed. Fish can be farmed with other species in these systems, which transform otherwise discharged nutrients into useful products, making the system practical.
Wastewater generation or aquaculture water treatment is a byproduct of aquaculture farms’ operation from hatcheries and agricultural systems. Unused food and fish faeces are the main causes of wastewater in commercial aquaculture operations. The soluble and solid waste categories of the aquaculture industry’s waste in water contain the two primary components nitrogen and phosphorus.